HVGIQ: Laos

Laos is the least populated country in Indochina; home to nearly 7 million people. It is a single-party Marxist state, and ranks close to Cambodia and Burma on the tail end of human development indices. Ethnic Lao are about 55% of the population and inhabit the lowland regions. Numerous ethnic minorities inhabit more elevated regions, including the Hmong, who are about 8% of the population.

In this post I review one small study with intelligence test data for the nation of Laos. I also summarize over a dozen studies with intelligence and achievement test scores for Laotians living in the United States. A majority of these studies are for Hmong Americans.

⎻⎻⎻⎻⎻⎻⎻⎻⎻⎻⎻⎻⎻⎻ HᏤ ⎻⎻⎻⎻⎻⎻⎻⎻⎻⎻⎻⎻⎻⎻

Boivin et al (1996 ) tested two groups of children in Laos with the Kaufman Assessment Battery for Children (K-ABC). The first sample was mostly drawn from higher socioeconomic status families in the capital city of Vientiane. The second sample was drawn from rural schools outside of the capital. The K-ABC was translated into Lao and administered by trained physicians.

The IQ of 24 urban children was 112.7 while the IQ of 22 rural children was 89.9.

The mothers of these children were also tested with the Matrix Analogies Test-Expanded Form (an intelligence test that closely resembles Raven’s Progressive Matrices). The IQ of 24 urban mothers was 108.7, and the IQ of 22 rural mothers was 91.3.

The urban sample was described as “mainly children of medical staff … and administrative professionals” at a University affiliated hospital. So this is a slightly advantaged sample. The rural children were described in average terms: “… not from families in abject poverty but… less affluent than those of the professional class in Vientiane” (p. 590).

The average of the two normal samples is 90.6, which is also our national IQ estimate for Laos.

This is close to the estimate that Lynn & Vanhanen (2006; 2012) make from the same study: 89. Lynn cites data for two samples, and is also apparently using the IQ values from the rural mothers and their children, but he misreports the data as coming from two samples of 8 year-olds that were tested with the K-ABC, instead of one sample of 8 year-olds that was tested with the K-ABC and one adult sample that was tested with the MxAT. This is a confusing error since two samples of 8 year-olds were tested with the K-ABC (the average IQ of the two 8 year-old samples is 101.8 and not 89).

Table I: IQ test scores in Laos

Admin Sample Age N Test IQ Reference
_
~1995 SA 5-12 24 KABC 113 Boivin et al, 1996
_
_
~1995 A 5-12 22 KABC 90 Boivin et al, 1996
_
_
~1995 SA Adult 24 MxAT 109 Boivin et al, 1996
_
_
~1995 A Adult 22 MxAT 91 Boivin et al, 1996
_

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The northeast of Thailand—called Isan—shares a long border with Laos along the Mekong river, and the people in this region speak a dialect of Lao and are close ethnic cousins to the majority people of Laos. The Northeast has an estimated IQ of 90, and is the lowest performing region in Thailand. This similarity suggests that 90.6 is a decent estimate for Laos. The scores for Laotian immigrant groups reviewed in the next section are also very similar.

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Intelligence and Achievement Test Scores of Laotian Americans

Two culturally distinct groups from Laos fled to America after the Communists took power in 1975: Lao and Hmong.

■ Lao Americans

Two unpublished student dissertations from the 1980s contain intelligence test scores from newly arrived Lao refugees.

IQ data was collected for 6-13 year-old immigrants in North Texas (Utairatanakit, 1987 ). These children were all born in Laos and had been in the US between 1-6 years. They were given the K-ABC as well as the performance scale of the Wechsler Intelligence Scale for Children-Revised. The test examiners were fluent in Lao, and the test instructions were given in both Lao and English.

Their IQ on the WISC was 102.4 and their IQ on the K-ABC was 100.4. So the average IQ of this sample was 101.4.

There is also IQ data for a group of Lao immigrant children in Nashville, Tennessee (Nasseh, 1988 ). These were 4th graders in English as a Second Language (ESL) programs. They had been in the country, on average, for 4 years. This sample had a Raven’s Progressive Matrices IQ of 76.1

There is a large difference between these two studies, but the average gives us an IQ of 88.8 for Lao Americans.

Table II: IQ test scores for Lao Americans

Admin Sample Age N Test IQ Reference
_
~1986 A 6-13 70 KABC 100 Utairatanakit, 1987
WISC-R 102
(101)
_
_
~1987 A 10-14 21 CPM 74 Nasseh, 1988
SPM 78
(76)
_

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Both of these studies included achievement tests. The Texas sample was given the Iowa Test of Basic Skills and the Nashville sample was given the Stanford Achievement Test. Unfortunately, both report raw scores and I don’t have access to the norms for either test. I will have to update this post at a later date.

Ima & Rumbuat (1987 ) report standard scores for 58 Lao immigrants on the Comprehensive Test of Basic Skills. This group had an Achievement Quotient (AQ) of 92 (Reading=84.1, Math=99.9).

California gives state-wide achievement tests to nearly all school children, and this data is broken down by ethnicity and available online: Standardized Testing and Reporting (STAR).

For the years 2003-2006 I looked at the performance of over 52,000 Lao Americans on the reading and math sections of the California Achievement Test. In comparison with whites, Lao students had an AQ of 90.6 (Reading=88.1, Math=93).

For the years 2009-2012 I looked at the performance of over 36,000 Lao Americans on the math and reading sections of the California Standards Tests. In comparison with whites, Lao students had an AQ of 90.4 (Reading=91.2, Math=89.5).

The median AQ of Lao Americans from three studies is 90.6.

Table III: Achievement scores for Lao Americans

Admin Sample Age N Test AQ Reference
_
1987 A 12-18 58 CTBS 92 Ima & Rumbaut, 1989
_
_
2003-06 A 8-17 52716 CAT 91 Malloy, 2014a
_
_
2009-12 A 8-17 36654 CST 90 Malloy, 2014b
_

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■ Hmong Americans

Significant numbers of Hmong live in the highland regions of Thailand, Vietnam, and Laos, but these populations migrated down from southern China only in the last few centuries. A majority of Hmong still live in China.

Their movement into the remote parts of Indochina reflects a cultural history of resisting state control. In the early 20th century the Hmong revolted against colonial French authorities with some success. During the 1960s the United States recruited many Laotian Hmong as mercenaries against the Communist insurgents that were vying for control of Laos. When the Marxists took power they implemented genocidal reprisals that pushed many Hmong into refugee zones in Thailand, where some still live.

Many Laotian Hmong were eventually absorbed by the U.S., which took in hundreds of thousands of Southeast Asian refugees following the Communist victories of the 1970s; over 260,000 Hmong now live in the United States (For scale, some 416,000 still live in Laos).

Hmong Americans are an interesting test case in intergenerational assimilation as they came with almost no beneficial skills for living in a developed economy. A majority of Hmong immigrants were illiterate and had no formal education. In fact, the Hmong didn’t even have a written language before missionaries developed an alphabet in the 1950s.

Most of the studies in this post are specifically for Hmong Americans; this is the first review of Hmong cognitive ability.

Irwin & Madden (1986 ) provide the earliest data for Hmong immigrants. They collected test norms for refugee children attending a summer school program in Appleton, Wisconsin. Performance subtests of the Wechsler Intelligence Scale for Children-Revised were given to 110 children, ages 6-17. Their WISC IQ was 101.9.

The younger children were given the Coloured Progressive Matrices and the older children were given the Standard Progressive Matrices. The CPM IQ was 95.5 and the SPM IQ was 89.4.

The mean IQ from the three tests given to this sample is 95.6.

An older sample of Hmong, ages 20-64 (avg. 37), were also given the Standard Progressive Matrices. Mulder (1991 ) recruited subjects from adult education and ESL courses in Fresno, California. Others were located through religious organizations. The complete sample (N=106) had been in the U.S., on average, for 6 years. 72% had never attended school prior to emigrating.

The test was administered with a Hmong interpreter. Their SPM IQ was 60.6. Raven scores were associated with their adult education grades (.35).

Another study looked at 40 Hmong children in the rural Midwest (Smith et al, 1997 ). The average age was 10 years old and they had lived in the U.S., on average, for 8 years. So this sample was mostly raised in America. They were given the Wechsler Intelligence Scale for Children-III and the Kaufman Brief Intelligence Test.

The WISC IQ of this sample was 81.2. Their K-BIT IQ was 79.8. Performance on the two tests had a correlation of .83. Children from homes that spoke both English and Hmong did not have higher performance than children from households that only used Hmong. However, verbal scores on both the K-BIT and the WISC were over 20 points lower than the performance scores, indicating extensive language deficits. The average IQ of this sample was 80.5, with a verbal IQ of 71.8 and a non-verbal IQ of 93.

One study looked at 56 Hmong children referred for special educational needs in Dunn County, Wisconsin (Preston, 1999 ). Each child was given four different IQ tests: The WISC-III, the K-BIT, the Test of Nonverbal Intelligence-3, and the Comprehensive Test of Nonverbal Intelligence. IQ on the WISC was 79.8, IQ on the K-BIT was 78.5, IQ on the TONI was 102.9, and IQ on the CTONI was 92.4. The average score for the four tests is 88.4.

Since the sampling procedure required a cognitive disadvantage (referral for educational needs), this sample is classified as SD (slightly disadvantaged), and will not be used for the average IQ estimate.

Two student dissertations discuss data from a common sample (Redwine, 2005 ; Wood, 2005 ). This research involves 28 Hmong in La Crosse, WI that were given the Universal Nonverbal Intelligence Test at age 10, and the Comprehensive Test of Nonverbal Intelligence at age 11. Their UNIT IQ was 96.7 and their CTONI IQ was 95.8. Performance on these tests was associated with parental education level (.42)—57.1% of the parents had no education.

Two studies examine the ‘school readiness’ of Hmong (an academic euphemism for preschool IQ). Kan & Kohnert (2008 ) administered the Leiter International Performance Scale-Revised to English- and Hmong-speaking 4 year-olds. The Leiter IQ of these young children was 102.2.

Another study looked at Hmong entering school in St. Paul, Minnesota (Xiaong et al, 2008 ). These are children in Project Early Kindergarten (PEK), an educational experiment in 10 city schools with the intended goal of closing ethnic achievement gaps. About 1/4 of U.S. Hmong live in Minnesota, and St. Paul has the largest urban population of Hmong in the world. Hmong are fully 10% of the St. Paul population, and disproportionately young: over 30% of St. Paul’s public school children are Hmong.

PEK children were given the Peabody Picture Vocabulary Test-III. The Hmong had a PPVT IQ of 68.5.

There is wide variation in the Hmong American IQ scores listed in Table IV: from 60.6 for an uneducated adult sample to 102.2 for a recent sample of preschool children. If we exclude the one study that selected Hmong based on disadvantage (Preston, 1999) we are left with six normal samples of Hmong Americans. The median Hmong IQ from these six samples is 88.

The median nonverbal IQ from five studies is 95.5 and the average verbal IQ from two studies is 70.2. Verbal scores might be excessively low due to test bias, which would mean 95.5 is a more accurate estimate. Adapting a verbal intelligence test, like the PPVT, for the Hmong would help resolve the question of their true verbal abilities.

Table IV: IQ test scores for Hmong Americans

Admin Sample Age N Test IQ Reference
_
1980 A 6-17 110 WISC 102 Irwin & Madden, 1986
6-11 55 CPM 96
11-17 48 SPM 89
(96)
_
_
~1990 A 20-64 106 SPM 61 Mulder, 1991
_
_
~1996 A 7-13 40 WISC 81 Smith et al, 1997
KBIT 80
(81)
_
_
~1998 SD 6-13 56 WISC 80 Preston, 1999
KBIT 79
TONI 103
CTONI 92
(88)
_
_
2001 A 10 28 UNIT 97 Wood, 2005
11 CTONI 96
(96)
_
_
~2007 A 4 26 Leiter 102 Kan & Kohnert, 2008
_
_
2008 A ~6 196 PPVT 69 Xiong et al, 2008
_

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Four studies provide achievement test data. Ima & Rumbuat (1987) give scores for 47 Hmong on the Comprehensive Test of Basic Skills. This group had an AQ of 90.7 (Reading=86.3, Math=99.5).

Madyun & Lee (2010 ) compared a sample of 3185 white and Hmong 7th-8th graders in 79 neighborhoods of St. Paul. All the children took the Metropolitan Achievement Test-7. In comparison with the white children, Hmong had an AQ of 90.5 (Reading=87.7, Math=93.2).

Xiong et al (2008) gave St. Paul kindergarten children three tests from the Woodcock-Johnson Tests of Achievement III. These children had an AQ of 92.9. Despite scoring below the 2nd percentile on the PPVT, this sample did unusually well on the W-J language tests (Reading=97.3, Math=84.2).

Finally, I looked at STAR data from California. Statewide achievement tests only started reporting data for Hmong in 2010. For the years 2010-2012 I looked at the performance of over 28,000 Hmong Americans on the math and reading sections of the California Standards Tests. In comparison with whites, Hmong students had an AQ of 91.3 (Reading=88.9, Math=93.6).

The median Achievement Quotient for Hmong Americans from four studies is 91.

Table IV: Achievement scores for Hmong Americans

Admin Sample Age N Test AQ Reference
_
1987 A 12-18 47 CTBS 91 Ima & Rumbaut, 1989
_
_
2002 A 13-14 ~2337 MAT 91 Madyun & Lee, 2010
_
_
2008 A ~6 196 WJTA 93 Xiong et al, 2008
_
_
2010-12 A 8-17 28595 CST 91 Malloy, 2014c
_

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Conclusions

In summary, one IQ study from Laos gives a national IQ of 90.6.

Lao speaking people inhabit the neighboring region of northeast Thailand. My estimated IQ for this region was 90.

Two studies of Lao immigrant children in the United States give an IQ of 88.8.

Three studies of Lao Americans give an AQ of 90.6.

There are a larger number of studies for Hmong Americans, a Laotian minority group that started migrating to the United States in the mid-1970s (Hmong are also native to China, Vietnam, and Thailand, but few, if any, Hmong Americans came from these populations).

The median Hmong American IQ from six studies is 88. Their IQ on nonverbal tests was 95.5, and their IQ on verbal tests was 70.2. The low verbal scores could be due to language bias, which would make the nonverbal score a more accurate estimate. I can’t say if this is the case.

The median Hmong American AQ from four studies is 91.

Studies of intelligence and achievement are in agreement that Laotian and Hmong Americans are close to the 25th percentile of white cognitive test performance. This is about 1/3 of a standard deviation higher than African American performance, and close to Hispanic American performance.

The Hmong have higher intelligence and achievement scores than Puerto Rican Americans, another minority with a language handicap. The Hmong have greater difficulties with language tests, but their nonverbal IQ is significantly higher than Puerto Rican nonverbal IQ (95.5 vs. 90.4).

If IQ scores are simply a reflection of developmental exposures to the “Culture of the Test” it is not obvious how freshly arrived refugee children from pre-literate Asian tribes have competitive intelligence test performance with non-Asian U.S. minorities.

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⎻⎻⎻⎻⎻⎻⎻⎻⎻⎻⎻⎻⎻⎻ REFERENCES ⎻⎻⎻⎻⎻⎻⎻⎻⎻⎻⎻⎻⎻⎻

Boivin, M.J., Chounramany, C., Giordani, B., Xaisida, S., Choulamountry, L., Pholsena, P., … & Olness, K. (1996). Validating a cognitive ability testing protocol with Lao children for community development applications. Neuropsychology, 10, 588-599.

Ima, K., & Rumbaut, R.G. (1989). Southeast Asian refugees in American schools: A comparison of fluent-English-proficient and limited-English-proficient students. Topics in Language Disorders, 9, 54-75.

Irwin, D.A. & Madden, C. (1986). A psychoeducational assessment procedure for Southeast Asian refugee students. In C.L. Williams & J. Westermeyer (Eds.), Refugee mental health in resettlement countries (pp. 189-204). Washington, D.C., USA: Hemisphere Publishing Corporation.

Kan, P.F., & Kohnert, K. (2008). Fast mapping by bilingual preschool children. Journal of Child Language, 35, 495-514.

Lynn, R., & Vanhanen, T. (2006). IQ & global inequality. Augusta, USA: Washington Summit Publishers.

Lynn, R., & Vanhanen, T. (2012). Intelligence: A Unifying Construct for the Social Sciences. London, UK: Ulster Institute for Social Research.

Madyun, N., & Lee, M. (2010). Neighborhood ethnic density as an explanation for the academic achievement of ethnic minority youth placed in neighborhood disadvantage. Berkeley Review of Education, 1, 87-112.

Mulder, P.L. (1991). An investigation of the effects of level of acculturation on the performance of adult Hmong refugees on Raven’s Standard Progressive Matrices and Bender-Gestalt Visual/Motor Test. Unpublished doctoral dissertation, California School of Professional Psychology, USA.

Nasseh, A.A. (1988). Comparison of intelligence and achievement levels of Laotian and American fourth-grade students in four schools with an ESL/bilingual program. Unpublished doctoral dissertation, George Peabody College for Teachers of Vanderbilt University, USA.

Preston, J. (1999). An investigation of Hmong students’ performance on four standardized cognitive ability measures. Unpublished doctoral dissertation, Graduate College, University of Wisconsin-Stout, USA.

Redwine, D.J. (2005). A comparison of limited English proficient and English proficient Hmong Students’ Performance on the Comprehensive Test of Nonverbal Intelligence. Unpublished educational specialist thesis, University of Wisconsin-La Crosse, USA.

Smith, D.K., Wessels, R.A., & Riebel, E.M. (1997). Use of the WISC-III and K-BIT with Hmong students. Paper presented at Annual Meeting of the American Psychological Association, Chicago, USA, August 1997.

Utairatanakit, D. (1987). Construct and concurrent validity of the Kaufman Assessment Battery for Children (K-ABC) with a Laotian sample. Unpublished doctoral dissertation, Texas Woman’s University, USA.

Wood, R.A. (2005). A Comparison of scores on the Universal Nonverbal Intelligence Test (UNIT) and the Comprehensive Test of Nonverbal Intelligence (CTONI) in a sample of Hmong students. Unpublished education specialist thesis, University of Wisconsin-La Crosse, USA.

Xiong, Z.B., Yang, K.K., & Lee, J.K. (2008). What helps and hinders Hmong pre-kindergartners’ school readiness: learning from and about the Hmong in St. Paul, Minnesota. St. Paul, USA: Ready 4 K.

8 Comments

  1. The low IQ of the Hmong doesn’t surprise me, although the wide variability is (especially for being in America), which might leave open the possibility that their genotypic IQ is higher than around 90. I don’t think that’s especially likely, especially with the degree of social dysfunction the Hmong exhibit in the US, but I think it does give hope for other southeast asians having higher genotypic IQ’s when a recently illiterate tribal people have IQ’s around what is often given for southeast asian countries by Lynn and co. To that end, I think people in these sorts of discussions very much underrate the historical and cultural record of SE asia- while not much has ever come out of SE asia in terms of unique inventions and discoveries, they certainly do have a strong record of state building and civilization, and in all honesty, I find SE asia’s architectural and artistic record to be much more impressive than much of east asia. The sprawling stone cities and temple complexes you see throughout that region are very elaborate and exhibit a strong degree of engineering expertise, and while one could debate on how much migrations from China and elsewhere have contributed (and how much one can extrapolate the achievements of pre-modern peoples to now) even more isolated islands like Sumatra, Java and Bali developed monumental architecture with advanced, seafaring states.

    Considering how the Hmong are a minority in Laos and Laos’ history of state building goes back quite sometime, it’s very unlikely their genotypic average is that low.

  2. A Disinterested Observer

    August 8, 2014 at 9:23 am

    Permit me to add some anecdotal observations to your analysis. I have a 15-year familiarity with the Lao expat community from Eastern New York/Western Connecticut. My wife is half-Lao, half-Thai. My father-in-law is Lao, from the northwest area of Laos, so you could consider him “Hmong” though he doesn’t identify himself as such. He was recruited by U.S. Army Special Forces/CIA as part of the cross-border ops with Vietnam you describe. Biggest reason is he is much taller than the average SE Asian, at 6’0. My mother-in-law is also taller than average for a SE Asian woman at 5’5”. My father-in-law was recruited from the (then) Royal Lao Army and fought in several skirmishes alongside US forces against communist insurgents (both Lao and Vietnamese), and was wounded through the calf. Eventually, he made it to one of the refugee centers in NE Thailand (was able to take advantage of mother-in-law’s Thai citizenship) with his family and emigrated to USA in 1979 to Eastern NY state. He, along with the other Lao expat males I know, was able to find good work in typical blue-collar industries (paper and metal fastening, small machine manufacturing), able to retire with a modest pension 8 years ago. He was able to pick up working English quickly (though he has a pronounced accent). Significantly, my wife grew up in a household where English was not the most frequently spoken language, yet her English is at least as good as mine. She graduated high school in early 1990’s in the top 15% of her class and then graduated from a top NY state private (Catholic) university with a degree in Biology. So, possibly accelerated Flynn effect? Don’t know; my brother-in-law definitely has father’s height gene (he’s also 6’0), but the body of a Pacific Islander (probably because of heavy dairy-based Western diet growing up in USA) who played O-line on high school football team, and spent two tours in the Middle East (martial skill is highly prized in the Lao/Hmong expat community). Not sure how much/well this informs your statistical aggregation/analysis, but can give you a flavor of the range in cognitive skills within and between generations of the population you are referencing.

    • Being from northwest Laos does not equate to being Hmong. There are Hmong and Lao people throughout all northern regions of Laos and the Hmong are not a majority anywhere. If your father-in-law does not identify as Hmong he probably is not Hmong. Especially given the height of him and his wife, they are most likely ethnic Lao. The Hmong in Laos during the Vietnam war were of extremely small stature.

  3. Thanks.

    It’s been 39 years since 1975 (wow … I feel old) so there are no doubt by now schoolchildren of Laotian / Hmong background whose parents were also born in America. It will be interesting to see how they do.

  4. Ok. Here is my literature study that I did last month on average IQ of India. You can use the results if you are planning to make similar posts for India.

    On top, I have also compared the IQ data with China.

    IQ of Chennai, Tamil Nadu:-

    Study 1:-

    https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC3018494/

    IQ of 107 as a community sample. 4 zones in Chennai and 12 schools were selected randomly. Sample size of 717. 606 children belonged to families with less than 6500 INR monthly income. And 130 had illiterate mothers. If anything, the selection bias towards socio-economic status is downward.

    Study 2:-

    http://www.tandfonline.com/doi/abs/10.1179/oeh.2005.11.2.138

    IQ of children was found to be 102. And 95 for those having high lead in blood level.
    ——————————————–
    IQ in Chandigarh, Punjab:-

    https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC3767262/

    Average IQ is 99. 5 private schools and 5 government schools were randomly selected out of 37 schools. And sample size is 2400.

    —————————————————-
    IQ in 2 rural and 2 urban areas of Punjab:-

    http://www.ijres.org/papers/Volume%204/v4-i7/Version-2/G4724854.pdf

    IQ in 2 rural areas is 96.2, 90.4. And 2 urban areas is 102, 106. IQ grades are available (0 to 10th percentile, etc.) and online statistical tool is required to read.

    Rural areas are in Dera Bassi and Tehsil Kharar. Urban areas is in Fatehgarh Saheb. And Tehsil Kharar.

    ——————————————————————————————————–

    IQ of Delhi:-

    Study 1:-

    http://heapol.oxfordjournals.org/content/17/4/420.full.pdf+html

    IQ of kids of slum dwellers in New Delhi living in plot area is 92.4. And shanty houses/homeless is 89.4.

    IQ of kids who have attended schools is 96.7 (plot area) and 93.2 (shady houses)

    Study 2:-

    http://fluoridealert.org/wp-content/uploads/Kundu-2015.pdf

    IQ of 76.2 in Najafgarh (rural area of Delhi) and 85.2 in Defense Colony (slightly urban area). Government school were selected in both areas.

    76 IQ in high fluoride region and has to be taken with precaution.

    Study 3:-

    Cited by Lynn:-

    https://lesacreduprintemps19.files.wordpress.com/2012/11/lynn-race-differences-in-intelligence.pdf

    Page 60:-
    Row 3 gives an IQ of 93 for 14-year-old students at St. Xavier’s School in Delhi.

    Study 4:-

    http://www.ruralneuropractice.com/article.asp?issn=0976-3147&year=2016&volume=7&issue=2&spage=238&epage=243&aulast=Ranjan

    In the above IQ sample, average full scale IQ was found to be 90.6.

    However 36/50 were from rural areas and 14/50 from urban areas.

    ——————————————————————————————————–

    IQ in Andhra Pradesh (rural):-

    “Effect of fluoride exposure on Intelligence Quotient {IQ) among 13-15 year old school children of known endemic area of fluorosis, Nalgonda District, Andhra Pradesh.” KM Sudhir, Journal of Indian Association of Public Health Dentistry Year : 2009 | Volume : 7 | Issue : 13 | Page : 88-94

    http://www.jiaphd.org/downloadpdf.asp?issn=2319-5932&year=2009&volume=7&issue=13&spage=88&epage=94&aulast=Sudhir&type=2

    IQ in 4 villages in Andhra Pradesh is 88.7, 84.5, 84.5, 80.

    ——————————————————————————————————–

    IQ in West Bengal:-

    Study 1 (rural):-

    https://www.researchgate.net/publication/297722925_Dental_fluorosis_and_urinary_fluoride_concentration_as_a_reflection_of_fluoride_exposure_and_its_impact_on_IQ_level_and_BMI_of_children_of_Laxmisagar_Simlapal_Block_of_Bankura_District_WB_India?_sg=OxEw86Y9iI6rPYqTlpXNxf3sHxsD4oLarEkZXw_AKdiC1SmLw9IzIsEDusa540LU

    IQ in Villages in Laxmisagar Village was 108.3 in normal regions and 85–92 in fluoride contaminated areas.

    Study 2 (rural):-

    https://www.researchgate.net/publication/281872250_Association_of_iodine_status_with_IQ_level_and_academic_achievement_of_rural_primary_school_children_in_West_Bengal_India?_sg=C6DW2flLBxL70uQRbTh5PevuX6aK06oaIwvFWRYRrHYOP39LDEWGNEkXL5C1W4dQ

    Average IQ in 3 Government schools was 88.4

    ——————————————————————————————————–

    IQ of Karnataka (rural):-

    http://fluoridealert.org/wp-content/uploads/eswar-2011.pdf

    http://fluoridealert.org/wp-content/uploads/sebastian-2015.pdf

    http://www.jisppd.com/article.asp?issn=0970-4388&year=2011&volume=29&issue=2&spage=117&epage=120&aulast=Shivaprakash

    IQ of 2 villages is 86, 88.

    IQ of villages near Mysore is 80, 86, 88.

    IQ of village in Bagalkot is 76.36.

    IQ of Scheduled tribes in sub-urbs of Karnataka:-

    http://web.inflibnet.ac.in/ojs/index.php/IJFS/article/view/3461/2722

    IQ of 102 with 106 IQ for healthy group.

    WISC III was administered for testing.

    ——————————————————————————————————–

    IQ of Kolkata:-

    Study 1 (Lynn’s sample):-

    http://psycnet.apa.org/psycinfo/1974-10149-001

    “Compared scores of 2 geographically separated Bengali-speaking groups of schoolchildren, grades IX-XI, on Raven’s Standard Progressive Matrices. 2,836 Ss from Calcutta and 2,100 Ss from Agartala were tested. Ss from Calcutta were superior to those from Agartala by an average of 7 points.”

    Lynn reports this as IQ of 83. However, IQ of Calcutta was 87 and Agartala (Burmese/Tibetans/Chinese inhabited area) show IQ of 80. As shown above.

    Study 2:-

    http://onlinelibrary.wiley.com/doi/10.1002/ajpa.22648/full

    Average IQ in 81–90 range (10th and 25th percentile for British).

    57.95% undernourished kids in the sample (downward sampling of population). 21.5% kids had IQ above 120.

    ——————————————————————————————————–

    IQ in Uttar Pradesh:-

    Study 1 (rural):

    http://www.jcdr.net/article_fulltext.asp?issn=0973-709x&year=2015&month=November&volume=9&issue=11&page=ZC10&id=6726

    IQ of 110 in village Tiwariganj, Lucknow and 85–92 in village, Unnao district of UP.

    85-92 is in high fluoride region.

    CPM scores are mentioned. And is normalized to 110 IQ at 29 mean CPM score.
    Mean age of participant was 9 as mentioned in the sample.

    I will use normalization data for Australia:-

    http://docslide.us/download/link/a-normative-and-reliability-study-for-the-ravens-coloured-progressive-matrices

    Average CPM score for kids in Australia in 2003 matched for same aged group shows 27 mean and 30 at 75 percentile. So, the data is well normalized as per Australian 2003 norms.

    Study 2(urban):

    http://hrcak.srce.hr/file/44025

    IQ of Muslims in Aligarh city, Uttar Pradesh (Average IQ of 107)

    Source: “Badaruddoza. Inbreeding effects on metrical phenotypes among North Indian Children. Collegicum Antropologicum 28(Suppl. 2): 311-318. (ISSN No. 0350-6134.”

    ——————————————————————————————————–

    IQ of Gujarat rural:-

    http://fluoridealert.org/wp-content/uploads/trivedi-20124.pdf

    http://www.fluoridealert.org/wp-content/uploads/trivedi-2007.pdf

    IQ in 6 villages of Gujarat is 97 (optimum environment) and 92 (un-optimum conditions).

    IQ of villages near Ahmedabad is 104.

    ——————————————————————————————————–
    IQ in Maharashtra (Pune):-

    http://www.indianpediatrics.net/feb2004/feb-121-128.htm

    86.1 for low birth weight, 92.1 for medium birth weight and 97.2 for normal birth weight.

    https://www.indianpediatrics.net/july1999/july-669-676.htm

    IQ of control group was 101.38. And LBW was 94.

    ——————————————————————————————————–
    IQ of Madhya Pradesh (rural):-

    http://www.ruralneuropractice.com/article.asp?issn=0976-3147&year=2012&volume=3&issue=2&spage=144&epage=149&aulast=Saxena

    IQ of villages near Bhopal is 98.5.

    IQ of remaining 3 high fluoride villages in Madhya Pradesh is 83.6, 87 and 91.6.

    ——————————————————————————————————–
    IQ of Rajasthan (rural):-

    http://fluoridealert.org/wp-content/uploads/singh-2013.pdf

    IQ of villages near Jaipur is 93.31 and near Dausa is 84.48.

    Study 2 (Lynn’s sample, Agarwal and Sinha 1984):-

    http://link.springer.com/article/10.1007/BF01068128

    IQ of Muslims in government schools near Jaipur is 81 (non-inbred).

    Lynn cited this as average IQ of 78. A combination of inbred and outbred Muslims.

    Muslims not practicing inbreeding show 81 IQ.

    ——————————————————————————————————–
    IQ of Bihar:-

    Lynn’s sample:-

    https://www.researchgate.net/publication/19964938_Consquences_of_consanguinity_on_cognitive_behavior

    Average IQ is 93 suburbs, 79 rural.
    And 79 suburbs, 69 rural for inbred muslims.

    Lynn reports this as 79 average IQ. However, Muslims not practicing inbreeding show IQ of 85.

    ——————————————————————————————————–

    ——————————————————————————————————–

    ——————————————————————————————————–

    A table with details is presented below. And it contains IQ data, date of publication, norms used, test conducted, location, etc.

    Many of the IQ samples have been standardized on old norms. Like IQ in Chennai is published in 2013, measured in 2005. And standardized on Binet-Kamath scale of 1967 which measures IQ with respect to British 1967 kids.

    To remove bias of standardization on old norms, I present the following table:-

    Where date of measurement is not given, I have used date of publication as date of measurement. One location of IQ measurement represents one row in the table below.
    Flynn effect is used as 2.25 based on

    http://eyeonsociety.co.uk/resources/RPMChangeAndStability.pdf

    Changes of RPM scores in UK. As IQ data is on people with less than 20 years age, Figure 3 is used. IQ changed from 1938 to 1979 as “50 th percentile of 1979 was equivalent to 70 th percentile of 1938″.

    Location….IQ (old norms)……Date…..Year of norm…..Diff…..Flynn …..IQ (new norms)
    Punjab…….90.28……………….2016…….1979………………37…….2.25………81.955….SPM
    Punjab……..96.43……………….2016…….1979………………37…….2.25………88.105….SPM
    Punjab…….102.33……………..2016…….1979………………..37………2.25……..94.005…SPM
    Punjab…….106.34……………..2016…….1979………………..37………2.25……..98.015….SPM
    Chandigarh.99.31………………2008…….1979………………..48………2.25……..88.51…..WISC
    Delhi…………76.2……………….2015……..1979………………..17………2.25……..72.375…..SPM
    Delhi…………85.8……………….2015……..1979………………..17……….2.25……..81.975…..SPM
    Delhi…………92.5……………….1999………1979………………..13………2.25……..89.575….Stanford
    Delhi…………89.4……………….1999………1986………………..13………2.25……..86.475….Stanford
    Delhi…………90.4……………….2016………1969………………..47………2.25……..79.825….WISC
    UP……………107.42…………….2004……..1974………………..30………2.25……..100.67….WISC
    UP…………….110.1………………2015………NA………………..17………….NA……..110.1…..CPM
    UP……………..90………………….2015………NA………………..17………….NA……..90….CPM
    Gujarat……….97.17………………2012………1989………………..23………2.25……..91.995..Stanford
    Gujarat……….92.53………………2012………1989………………..23………2.25……..87.355..Stanford
    Gujarat……….104.44…………….2007………1989………………..18………2.25……..100.39.Stanford
    Gujarat……….91.72……………….2007………1989………………..18………2.25……..87.67.Stanford
    Karnataka……88.8………………..2011………1977………………..34………2.25……..81.15…SPM
    Karnataka…….86.3……………….2011………1977………………..34………2.25……..78.65…SPM
    Karnataka…….86.37……………..2015………1998………………..17………2.25……..82.545….CPM
    Karnataka……..88.6………………2015………1998………………..17………2.25……..84.775….CPM
    Karnataka……..80.49…………….2015………1998………………..17………2.25……..76.665….CPM
    Karnataka……..76………………….2011………2004………………..7……….2.25……..74.425….CPM
    Karnataka……..66………………….2011………2004………………..7………..2.25……..64.425….CPM
    Karnataka……..106…………………2015……..1991………………..32………2.25…….. 100.6…..CPM
    AP………………..88.7……………… 2009……..1992………………..17………2.25……..84.875….SPM
    AP…………………84.5………………2009……..1992………………..17………2.25……..80.675….SPM
    AP…………………84.5………………2009……..1992………………..17………2.25……..80.675….SPM
    AP………………….80……………… 2009………1992………………..17………2.25……..76.175…..SPM
    MP……………….98.5………………2012………1992………………..20………2.25……..94…..SPM
    MP……………….91.6……………….2012……….1992………………20………2.25……..87.1….SPM
    MP……………….87………………….2012………1992………………..20………2.25……..82.5….SPM
    MP……………….83.6……………….2012………1992………………..20………2.25……..79.1…..SPM
    Rajasthan……….81………………….1984………1977………………..7………2.25……..79.425….SPM
    Rajasthan……….93.3……………… 2013……… 1992 ………………..21………2.25……..88.575.SPM
    Rajasthan……….84.48……………..2013………1992………………..21………2.25……..79.755..SPM
    West Bengal……106………………..2015……… 1989………………..26………2.25….100.15..CRT-RC
    West Bengal…….90…………………2015………1989………………..26………2.25……..84.15..CRT-RC
    West Bengal…….88.8………………2014………2003………………..11………2.25……..86.325..SPM
    Chennai………….107………………..2006………1967………………..39………2.25…98.225..Stanford
    Chennai………….102………………. 2013……….1973………………..40………2.25….93..Stanford
    Pune………………97………………….2000………1973………………..27………2.25……..90.925..WISC
    Pune……………….101.38……………1994……….1960………………..34………2.25…93.73…Stanford

    ——————————————————————————————————–

    ——————————————————————————————————–

    ——————————————————————————————————–

    The average IQ at 42 locations of India is 86.41 IQ. With 9/42 IQ samples done in urban areas like Chennai. Note that Delhi is considered as rural area in below calculations as IQ data used for Delhi is in slum area of Delhi, or Nazafgarh (a village outside Delhi) and a hospital where 72% admits where rural.

    IQ of urban areas of India based on the IQ data available is: 93 IQ.
    IQ of rural areas of India based on the IQ data available is: 85 IQ.

    India is 30% urban and 70% rural.

    Calculating on urban/rural divide of India, average IQ of India is 87.4 IQ.

    **********************
    IQ of India by caste:-

    There is no major differences between Indian castes and IQ results.

    https://books.google.co.in/books?id=9tZ4AgAAQBAJ&pg=PA16&lpg=PA16&dq=chopra+iq+difference+between+castes&source=bl&ots=mUJt4iGaiY&sig=K5__8u3gFJA4AG6yXxjnwnzm4Xk&hl=en&sa=X&ved=0ahUKEwjUm83W_MbQAhUEQI8KHW–DpEQ6AEIOjAC#v=onepage&q=chopra%20iq%20difference%20between%20castes&f=false

    Page 16.

    This book covers several IQ samples of India by caste.

    There is no major differences between Indian castes. As per IQ tests done.

    On non-verbal IQ tests (Raven’s Progressive Matrices), there are no significant differences among Indian castes.

    As it is observed via IQ testing that Vaishyas have higher non-verbal IQ than Kshatriya who have higher non-verbal IQ than Brahmins followed by SCs.

    Rather the difference between Vaishyas and Brahmins on non-verbal IQ tests (as per IQ research) is same as the difference between Brahmins and Scheduled Castes.

    Secondly, the differences among Indian castes is estimated to be less than 3 IQ points on non-verbal IQ tests.

    However on verbal IQ tests, the difference is 11 IQ points.
    **********************************

    Analysis of IQ data on India:-

    Some conclusions that I draw from the IQ data of India and Richard Lynn’s work on Indian states:-

    //drive.google.com/file/d/0B3c4TxciNeJZQlIxM3EwSXg4REk/view

    1. Uttar Pradesh has the highest non-verbal IQ in India:-

    If you read Richard Lynn’s data on Indian states. Uttar Pradesh has highest T2 score (score for 3rd grade kids in maths, closely related to IQ) for any state in India.
    That’s full one standard deviation above Delhi. And 0.6 standard deviation above average Indian.

    Given the fact that Orissa scored 404 on TIMSS and Rajasthan scored 382 on TIMSS 2003, I can deduce TIMSS score of Uttar Pradesh to be around 460. Which has probably risen since 2003.

    In recent IQ samples on Uttar Pradesh, average IQ is around 100. With 62 pc mal-nourishment and 24% fluoride contaminated districts.

    Higher average IQ of Uttar Pradesh is also visible in New Delhi (neighboring region of UP).

    Homeless people in Delhi in areas near UP have higher IQ than top class families in South West Delhi (bordering Rajasthan).

    This is evident from IQ samples:-

    Study 1 in Nand Nagari, Delhi (region bordering Uttar Pradesh):-

    http://heapol.oxfordjournals.org/content/17/4/420.full.pdf+html

    IQ of kids of slum dwellers in New Delhi living in plot area is 92.4. And shanty houses/homeless is 89.4.

    IQ of kids who have attended schools is 96.7 (plot area) and 93.2 (shady houses)

    Study 2 (Dwarka, region bordering Rajasthan):-

    Cited by Lynn:-

    https://lesacreduprintemps19.files.wordpress.com/2012/11/lynn-race-differences-in-intelligence.pdf

    Page 60:-
    Row 3 gives an IQ of 93 for 14-year-old students at St. Xavier’s School in Delhi.

    So, top 1% of people on socio-economic status in West Delhi (St.Xavier kids, bordering Rajasthan and Haryana) have a lower IQ than bottom 1% of East Delhi (homeless people near UP border).

    This difference is attributed to higher average IQ in Uttar Pradesh and lower average IQ in Haryana and Rajasthan. A gap as big as 11 IQ points currently.

    2. IQ in Uttar Pradesh is high only in River facing areas:-

    http://img.asercentre.org/docs/Publications/ASER%20Reports/ASER%202014/District%20Estimates/uttarpradesh.pdf

    This document covers district wise reading and maths score in districts in Uttar Pradesh.

    Average reading and maths score of districts that are near Ganga river is much higher than off shore areas near Himalyan mountain.

    Due to the same, average IQ in Uttarakhand (a hilly area near Uttar Pradesh) is below national average as shown by Richard Lynn.

    This is because historically the smartest people in India settled at or around Ganga river in Nothern India.

    3. Brahmins in UP:-

    UP has 12% Brahmins. Population of UP is 200 million which means that 50% of Brahmins in India (25 million) live in Uttar Pradesh.

    The higher IQ of Brahmins in USA is wrongly interpreted as a caste difference. The reality is that people in Uttar Pradesh have higher IQ than rest of Indian states (irrespective of caste). And it just has 50% of Brahmin population.

    This is wrongly interpreted on HDB that “Brahmins have higher average IQ” which is actually “UP has higher average IQ”.

    Other North Indian states:-

    Jammu and Kashmir:-

    IQ in Jammu and Kashmir is the lowest in India. This is also confirmed by Richard lynn’s work.

    Lower IQ in J&K has nothing to do with location. Rather, J&K is a disputed territory and a constant war zone between India and Pakistan.

    Due to terror activites, it has drained all the cognitive elites from J&K to Punjab and Himachal Pradesh.

    As a result, IQ in Punjab is close to 90 as measured by IQ data above.

    And is above national average as measured by Lynn’s recent publication on India.

    Cognitive drain from Pakistan:-

    At the time of independence, very large proportion of cognitive elites moved from Pakistan to India. This can be seen here:-

    http://www.oldindianphotos.in/2009/10/mass-migration-during-independence-of.html

    7 million people in Punjab, India came from Pakistan in 1947.

    As mostly rich and cognitive elites migrated from Pakistan, the average IQ in Punjab is higher than Harayana and Himachal Pradesh (other regions in North India).

    Low IQ in Rajasthan:-

    IQ in Rajasthan is much lower than national average. Average IQ in Rajasthan based on IQ data above is only 83.

    This is also confirmed by TIMSS 2003 where average score for Rajsthan was only equivalent to 83 IQ.

    This is also confirmed by Lynn’s work:-

    //drive.google.com/file/d/0B3c4TxciNeJZQlIxM3EwSXg4REk/view

    Where Rajsthan underscores average Indian by 0.2 standard deviation or 3 IQ points.

    However, Rajasthan faces highest fluoride contamination in India as per national data:-

    http://www.indiaenvironmentportal.org.in/files/file/State-wise%20Districts%20with%20Fluoride%20and%20Arsenic%20Contaminated%20Groundwater.pdf

    Around 91% districts in Rajasthan are fluoride contaminated v/s 48% all over India.

    So, IQ in Rajasthan has the highest scope of IQ gains.

    IQ in Punjab is higher than IQ in Chandigarh.

    Based on IQ samples above, IQ in Punjab is 90.52.

    IQ in Chandigarh is 88.51.

    If you look at the IQ paper on Chandigarh as cited above, they have tested close to 2400 kids randomly in 33% schools and have covered all kids in Chandigarh.

    If you look at Richard Lynn’s work on Indian states:-

    //drive.google.com/file/d/0B3c4TxciNeJZQlIxM3EwSXg4REk/view

    Punjab scores around 253, 3 points above national average.

    Chandigarh scores around 247, 3 points below national average.

    The difference between Punjab and Chandigarh is 0.12 standard deviation. Which is close to 1.8 IQ points.

    So, the IQ data on India and recent tests by Lynn show shocking consistency point by point.

    Chandigarh is capital on Punjab. But has a lower IQ as Punjab pulls cognitive elites from J&K (war zone). So, cognitive clustering explains this trend.

    IQ in Gujarat:-

    Based on 4 IQ data on Gujarat as cited above done in 8 different locations, the average IQ was 91.85.

    IQ data in Gujarat is done in Kachh and Ahmedabad districts. District wise reading and maths score is also available:-

    http://img.asercentre.org/docs/Publications/ASER%20Reports/ASER%202014/District%20Estimates/gujarat.pdf

    Average test score for Kachh and Ahmedabad is 59.7 percentile reading and 23.75 maths.

    Average for Gujarat is 57 reading and 29 maths.

    So, reading scores are higher while maths score are lower.

    Based on this, I estimate that Gujarat will be much higher on maths and much lower on reading. As compared to the IQ of Kuchh and Ahmedabad, averaging at 91.85 IQ.

    5.25 percentile change will cause IQ jump by 2 on normal distribution, putting Gujarat non-verbal IQ at 93.85.

    2.7 percentile dip will cause IQ dip by 1, putting Gujarat verbal IQ at 90.

    Based on Lynn’s sample on India:-

    //drive.google.com/file/d/0B3c4TxciNeJZQlIxM3EwSXg4REk/view

    Average IQ in Gujarat is marginally higher than Chandigarh which scores 88.5 IQ based on very reliable IQ sample including large no. of kids.

    Note that IQ of India will be just 1 IQ points higher than IQ in Chandigarh at 89.5 IQ (verbal and non-verbal). Based on the IQ sample on Chandigarh and normalizing it to Richard Lynn’s work.

    Maths score of Gujarat is 262 while reading score of Gujarat is 247.

    Maths score is higher than national average by 4 IQ points. At 93.5 IQ.

    Reading score is same as national average at 89.5 IQ.

    So, you have perfect estimates. Based on Lynn’s work, IQ data on Gujarat, district wise reading and maths score in Gujarat.

    IQ in Madhya Pradesh:-

    IQ of Madhya Pradesh based on IQ data is 85.3 IQ.

    If you look at district wise reading and maths score in MP:-

    http://img.asercentre.org/docs/Publications/ASER%20Reports/ASER%202014/District%20Estimates/madhyapradesh.pdf

    Shivpuri and Bhopal where IQ tests were conducted show same maths scores as average for Madhya Pradesh.

    Average maths score is same for (Bhopal+Shivpuri average) and rest of MP.

    So, IQ of MP will be 85.3 maths IQ.

    Based on Lynn’s data on India the average score in MP is 239 maths. 0.22 standard deviation below average Indian.

    So, average IQ of India projected from IQ and Lynn’s data on MP will be 88.6 maths IQ.

    Which is consistent with IQ projection to rest of India from Punjab, Gujarat, Chandigarh, etc. to rest of India based on Lynn’s work, IQ data on India and district wise reading and maths scores.

    IQ in West Bengal:-

    There are two districts where IQ tests are done in West Bengal. First one is Bankura district where average IQ in 100.15 in optimum conditions and 84.15 in un-optimum (fluoride) conditions.

    Average IQ of Bankura district is 92.15 IQ.

    Second one is mostly done in 24 North Paragnas in 3 government schools where average IQ is 86.325 IQ.

    District wise reading and maths results in West Bengal are also available:-

    http://img.asercentre.org/docs/Publications/ASER%20Reports/ASER%202014/District%20Estimates/westbengal.pdf

    Bankura has 51.7 percentile kids accomplishing maths task. And 59.5 on reading.
    North Parag average is 67.6 reading. And 45.1 on maths.

    However, iodine study as cited above is only done in government schools. And it is well known that kids in private schools in India show higher IQ.

    So, IQ in Bankura district is closer to 89 IQ as low side sampled IQ shows 86.325.

    Average maths score of West Bengal will be marginally above the average in North Parag, and 2 IQ below Bankura as difference between average score for WB and average score for Bankura is 6 percentile which is 2 IQ.

    Average IQ in West Bengal will be 90.2 IQ.

    Based on Lynn’s work:-

    //drive.google.com/file/d/0B3c4TxciNeJZQlIxM3EwSXg4REk/view

    Average maths score of West Bengal is 260.5. Around 3 IQ above national average.

    So, you have good consistency with IQ data. That average India will score around 87-90 IQ.

    Same projections from IQ data in Punjab, Chandigarh, MP and Gujarat to rest of India based on average state wise score and district wise reading and maths score.

    Average IQ in Kolkata:-

    Kolkata had 2 IQ samples. One cited by Lynn and one other cited above, both show average IQ of 87. With good enough sample size.

    In second sample, 57% kids were undernourished. And 22% population was above 120 IQ.

    This is because Kolkata is a major city and pulls in top class immigrants from all over India.

    I conclude that long term Kolkata will be close to 100 IQ. As 57% undernourishment will push the average IQ by good amount, 6 points at the bare minimum and Kolkata will keep pulling high skilled immigrants from all over India.

    IQ in Orissa:-

    No IQ data.

    Orissa participated in TIMSS 2003 and average score was 404. England on which IQ is generally normalised scored 492 same year.

    Rajasthan scored 384.

    Lynn’s work shows that:-

    //drive.google.com/file/d/0B3c4TxciNeJZQlIxM3EwSXg4REk/view

    Mean maths score in Orissa is 247.5. And Rajasthan is 242.

    Orissa is 0.12 standard deviation above Rajasthan or 2 IQ.

    So, IQ in Orissa is close to 86 at the moment. And is also confirmed by TIMSS 2003 score on Orissa.

    Average score in Orissa is below average Indian as per Lynn, etc. by 1 IQ point.

    So, again you get the same IQ projection that average Indian will score 87-90 IQ.

    IQ in Karnataka:-

    Average IQ in Karnataka based on IQ samples cited above is 80.15 IQ.

    Average IQ was done in 2 villages in Devangree, 3 villages in Mysore, 2 villages in Bagalkot and in a suburb in Bellary.

    In Bellary sample, only Scheduled Tribes were selected.
    Bellary showed IQ of 100.6 for healthy group (non-stunted). And 6 points below for stunted group.

    As Bellary has appx. 60% under-nourished, average IQ is close to 96. As test was done on WISC, both verbal and non-verbal IQ is reported.

    In Devangree, two government schools were selected as mentioned in IQ sample above. The average IQ is close to 79.9 non-verbal IQ. As government schools show lower IQ and is a downward sample, the average IQ is likely to be close to 82.9 non-verbal IQ.

    In Mysore, both government and normal schools were selected and average IQ is close to 81.3 IQ.

    In Bagalkot, the average IQ was found to be 74.4 for non-fluoride group and 64.4 for those facing dental fluorosis. As majority people don’t face dental fluorosis, I will take average IQ to be 72 in Bagalkot, Karnataka.

    So, average IQ of these 4 districts is 83 IQ.

    Here are district wise maths result on Karnataka:-

    http://img.asercentre.org/docs/Publications/ASER%20Reports/ASER_2010/KARNATAKA_2010.pdf

    Average maths score for Bagalkot is 19 percentile below average for Karnataka.
    Average maths score for Mysore is 13.25 percentile below average for Karnataka.
    Average maths score for Devangree is 12.95 percentile below average for Karnataka.
    Average maths score for Bellary is 7.95 percentile below average for Karnataka.

    So, you get consistency that Bellary scores highest among these 4 districts in Karnataka followed by Devangree followed by Mysore with Bagalkot at the bottom. Consistent with IQ data on Karnataka on these 4 districts.

    IQ in Chimoga, Chikmanglur, Chitradurg, Dakshin and Uttar Bidar will be on higher side based on district wise reading and maths score.

    So, all districts where IQ test is done score below Karnataka average on reading and maths.

    To calculate the IQ of Karnataka, I will use normal distribution tool.

    http://www.wolframalpha.com/widgets/view.jsp?id=67817f2e01eecd366e6d73ac7a71bcd1

    Average IQ in 4 districts of Karnataka is 83 with SD of 19. Average Karnataka will score at 64 percentile of these 4 districts based on district wise reading and maths score in Karnataka.

    So, average IQ in Karnataka will be close to 89 IQ. Based on IQ test done in 4 districts and projecting the average to rest of Karnataka based on district wise reading and maths score.

    Lynn’s sample shows:-

    //drive.google.com/file/d/0B3c4TxciNeJZQlIxM3EwSXg4REk/view

    That average score in Karnataka is 255 on maths. Which is just 0.1 standard deviation above national average.

    So, again you get the same projection that entire India will score 87-90 average IQ.

    Which is consistent if you look into the IQ data on Chandigarh, Punjab, West Benagal, Gujarat, Orissa, Rajasthan and MP and try to find the average IQ of India based on district wise and state wise scores.

    Average IQ in New Delhi:-

    Based on IQ samples in New Delhi in 5 locations, average IQ is 83.

    Study 1 is done on homeless people in East Delhi in area bordering UP. Showing average to be 88 overall and 93 for those kids who attend schools.

    As it is extreme downward sampling of population as they are measuring IQ of homeless people (bottom 1% of socio-economic status), average in East Delhi will 8 points higher at 96 IQ.

    Study 2 cited above is on government schools showing average IQ to be 77.2. Average will be 80.2 as government schools score 3 points below average population.

    Study 3 is cited by Lynn showing average IQ of 93 on upper end population on socio-economic status. Average will be 8 points below as mentioned by Lynn in his book. So, average IQ is close to 85 in West Delhi.

    Study 4 shows average of 80.

    So, average IQ of Delhi will be close to 85.5 based on IQ samples.

    As per Lynn:-

    //drive.google.com/file/d/0B3c4TxciNeJZQlIxM3EwSXg4REk/view

    Delhi scores 240.5 maths score. 0.2 standard deviation below average Indian. Or 3 IQ points.

    So, average IQ of India will be 87-90 range based on IQ samples in Delhi and projecting it to rest of India based on state wise scores.

    IQ in Chennai and Tamil Nadu:-

    IQ in Chennai is 96 as measured by IQ samples. IQ sample on Chennai showing average IQ of 98 is even more reliable as they are randomly testing large number of kids in all zones of Chennai.

    There are no IQ samples on Tamil Nadu.

    To see average IQ in Tamil Nadu, I had to look at average score of Tamil Nadu in ASER, Lynn’s work and PISA.

    PISA score was 351 maths, 337 reading. At 77.5 maths IQ, 75.6 verbal IQ.

    Lynn showed average score of 257 maths, 249 reading. And is 2.1 non-verbal IQ above average Indian and same at verbal IQ.

    Based on IQ data all over India; that would transform to 90.6 maths IQ, 88.5 verbal IQ.

    As Lynn’s sample is in 2015 while PISA sample is in 2010, I had to see trends over time to see if average score for Tamil Nadu has actually risen from 2010 to 2015 as suggested by two data sets.

    http://img.asercentre.org/docs/Publications/ASER%20Reports/ASER%20TOT/State%20pages%20English/tamilnadu.pdf

    This is a document that captures scores of Tamil Nadu over time.

    Class 5 reading score (2006):- Tamil Nadu: 29.2, All India: 53.1
    Class 5 maths score(2007):- Tamil Nadu: 17.5, All India: 42.5

    A class 5 student in 2006 will be class 9 student in 2010, that is sampled by PISA.

    In 2014:-

    Class 3 reading score(2014):- Tamil Nadu: 37.9, All India: 40.3
    Class 5 reading score (2014):- Tamil Nadu: 46.9, All India: 48.1

    Class 3 maths score(2014):- Tamil Nadu: 24.3, All India: 25.4
    Class 5 maths score(2014):- Tamil Nadu: 25.8, All India: 26.1

    So, in 2010 the average score in Tamil Nadu for 15 yo should be 24.5 percentile below national average in 2010. 23.9 percentile below on reading. And 25 percentile below on maths. Based on state wise reading and maths score.

    Calculating average IQ of India based on PISA of Tamil Nadu in 2010:-

    http://www.wolframalpha.com/widgets/view.jsp?id=67817f2e01eecd366e6d73ac7a71bcd1

    PISA showed 77.5 maths IQ, 75.6 verbal IQ. In Tamil Nadu. SD of IQ was 17 in PISA of TN.
    Average score for all India average is 25 percentile higher on maths, 23.9 percentile higher on reading. As compared to TN. Based on state wise reading and maths results.

    Using normal distribution calculator, average IQ of India extrapolating from PISA of TN will be 86.5 verbal IQ, 89 non-verbal IQ.

    So, you get the same IQ projection on India that average IQ is 87-90 based on all IQ and test data on India (TIMSS, PISA, IQ reports).

    Average scores for Tamil Nadu has increased and can be seen in ASER link of TN. And in 2015, the scores are same as national average in 2015 as can be seen in Lynn’s work.

    Average IQ in Maharashtra:-

    Average IQ in Pune based on IQ samples is 92.33.
    To extrapolate it to rest of Maharashtra, I will use the district wise maths scores in Maharashtra:-

    http://img.asercentre.org/docs/Publications/ASER%20Reports/ASER_2010/MAHARASHTRA_2010.pdf

    Average score in Pune is 9.75 percentile higher than average for Maharashtra.

    9.75 percentile change in mean score will decrease IQ to 88.6 based on normal distribution calculator.

    http://www.wolframalpha.com/widgets/view.jsp?id=67817f2e01eecd366e6d73ac7a71bcd1

    Based on Lynn’s sample, average maths score in Maharashtra is 256.5. Only 1.9 IQ above average Indian.

    So, projecting average IQ sample in Pune to all India average based on state and district wise reading and maths score will result in average IQ of 86.7 IQ in India.

    Average IQ in Andhra Pradesh:-

    Average IQ in Andhra Pradesh is 80.6 based on 4 IQ samples cited above.

    Average IQ is 85 in fluoride free villages and 76 in severe fluoride conditions.

    Nalgonda district is chosen for conducting IQ tests.

    As severe fluoride conditions is rare in nalgonda district, I will take average IQ of 82-83 in Nalgonda.

    To extrapolate IQ in Nalgonda to average in Andhra Pradesh, I will use district wise maths scores:-

    http://img.asercentre.org/docs/Publications/ASER%20Reports/ASER%202014/District%20Estimates/andhrapradeshtelangana.pdf

    Nalgonda is below average for Andhra Pradesh by 2.7 percentile.

    2.7 percentile is 1 IQ points.

    So, average IQ in Andhra Pradesh is 83-84 IQ.

    As per Lynn’s sample, average maths score of Andhra Pradesh is 0.2 standard deviation below average of India.

    So, average IQ of India based on IQ samples in Andhra Pradesh and extrapolating it using district and state wise score is 86-87.

    So I conclude that all psychometric data on India points to average IQ in 86-90 range. As of 2016.

    One more important conclusion that I drew upon by looking at IQ data on India and China with environment is that average IQ in Indian villages is higher than average Iq in equivalent Chinese villages even with worse environmental conditions.

    • Also do note about the corrections I did in the IQ samples as attached above.
      In the sample on West Bengal (Bhowal, 2014) and Andhra Pradesh one; only IQ grades are mentioned. I put all the kids in grade 5 of RPM at 75 IQ for calculation.

      As IQ is not mentioned and IQ grades are specified, I used this method. Even if I assume a lower number like 67, the IQ result will change by 3-4 points.

      But the picture seems to be clear in both samples that 50% population (fluoride effected or iodine deficient) scores below 80. And then you get a second modal peak of IQ distribution at 90-100 IQ.

      Similarly in Madhya Pradesh sample, only IQ grades are mentioned. This is how I calculated:-

      3.16, 3.85, 4.23 and 4.45 are the mean IQ grades.

      Mean grade of 3 is (25-75 pcntile) or 100, 4 is (5-25 pcntile), 5 is below 5 pcntile. Or median grade of 3 is 50 pcntile, 4 is 15 pcntile, 5 is 2.5 pcntile.

      3.16 would be appx. 38 pcntile, 3.85 would be appx. 20.8 pcntile, 4.45 would be appx. 9.625 pcntile, 4.23 would be appx. 12.3 pcntile. Based on linear interpolation.

      Using normal distribution,
      http://www.wolframalpha.com/widgets/view.jsp?id=67817f2e01eecd366e6d73ac7a71bcd1

      IQ would be 95.5, 88.6, 84 and 80.6

      As they are government schools, I added 3 IQ numbers. This is true based on AQ scores in private vs government schools in PISA or local scores.

      In remaining samples, IQ is mentioned. So, you can cross check the methods for calculations on these samples where only IQ grades are mentioned.

      • More IQ data on India.

        Here is a recently published paper on IQ data on Karnataka, published on 30 Dec 2016 which I missed in my analysis:-

        http://www.jispcd.org/article.asp?issn=2231-0762;year=2016;volume=6;issue=9;spage=237;epage=242;aulast=Aravind#ref5

        Results:- http://www.jispcd.org/viewimage.asp?img=JIntSocPreventCommunitDent_2016_6_9_237_197204_t5.jpg

        Date of measurement: September 2014.
        Norms used: Raven’s 1977.
        Place:- One village in Kodagu. Two villages in Hassan.
        Schools:- Government schools.

        Average IQ:-

        97.78 in Kodagu in low F.
        101.45 in Hassan in med F. And 89.6 in high F.

        Note that the IQ numbers in paper are not normalized for mental age. You can use the results in which grades are mentioned (95%+, etc.) to calculate the IQ.

        Average IQ after normalizing it because of usage of old norms:-

        89.46 in Kodagu in low F.
        93.13 in Hassan in med F. And 81.27 in high F.

        As the measurement is done in government schools, average IQ is 92.46 in Kodagu. And 96 in Hassan in good fluoride conditions and 84 in worse fluoride environment.

        As worse fluoride environment is rare, I will use the average IQ to be 94 in Hassan.

        Here are Karnataka district wise maths results:-

        http://img.asercentre.org/docs/Publications/ASER%20Reports/ASER_2010/KARNATAKA_2010.pdf

        I already showed that Bagalkot, Devangree and Mysore where average IQ was 72, 83 and 81 were way below average for Karnataka by 15-19 percentile.

        Average scores for Hassan is 14 percentile higher than average for Karnataka.
        Average score for Kodagu is 3.75 percentile higher than average for Karnataka.

        Calculating on normal distribution,

        http://www.wolframalpha.com/widgets/view.jsp?id=67817f2e01eecd366e6d73ac7a71bcd1

        Average IQ of Karntaka extrapolating from average IQ in Hassan is 87.9 IQ.
        Average IQ of Karnataka extrapolating from average IQ in Kodagu is 91.2 IQ.

        Average IQ of Karnataka even on IQ data published 20 days back is 89 IQ. Which is exactly the same as average IQ calculated using IQ of Mysore, Devangree, Bagalkot. As shown above in my comments.

        So you get the basic picture that Indian villages which are decent on nutritional status score 90-95 average IQ as well. Like many of the IQ samples attached above. While the IQ is as low as 70-75 in places where nutritional status is weak and the same is also reflected in district wise test results.

      • Here is a blog that I made for IQ of India, using IQ data at 61 locations. And PISA, TIMSS scores.
        On top, I have tried to calculate average geno-typic IQ using iodine deficiency and mal-nourishment:-

        https://indiaiqblog.quora.com/

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