Note: We computed these results based on multiple versions of the ABCD data (v2.01 & v3.01) and with different inclusion/exclusion criteria.  I originally posted a version based on the ABCD 2.01 data filtered for missing admixture, and other scores. However, after looking, I found a version that uses the maximum 3.01 sample with age-corrected NIHTBX scores (N = 11474).  While the scores for the two versions correlate at r = .98, in some cases (e.g., Vietnamese), there is a notable difference.  I have now replaced the original table with the one based on N = 11474 and moved the original table to the end of the post.  For replicability and modifiability, I attached the latest R code which I had in my file.


In our manuscript, titled “Reply to Warne,” we present average eduPGS and NIH Toolbox composite scores from the ABCD study, categorized by ethnic and religious groups. In our analyses, we used unweighted means instead of sample weighted scores, since we were only interested in the correlation between mean eduPGS and cognitive ability. However, we also computed weighted NIH Toolbox scores, which may be of interest to some readers.

These scores were computed using the survey package for R as recommended by Heeringa and Berglund (2020). These weighted scores, reported below, represent the “neuropsychological performance” scores, measured between 2016 and 2018, of broadly representative samples of 10-year-old American children. (Though, children were excluded, by the ABCD consortium, if they were not fluent in English or if one of their parents were not fluent in either English or Spanish.) The first three columns, after the group labels, display the sample size, means, and standard deviations, respectively. The fourth column presents the scores normalized with the non-Hispanic White mean set to 100.00 and standard deviations set to 15.00. To norm scores, we pooled the standard deviations across all groups (pooled SD = 16.45) and transformed the values using the pooled SD. On a reader request, I added average years of parental education, which I previously outputted, in the fifth column.

The ethnic groups are mutually exclusive, and the specific variables used to code them are provided in the supplementary materials of the manuscript. Classifications are based on the race/ethnicity of the child as reported by the responding parent in conjunction with the nationality and immigrant status of the parents; see the Parent Demographics Survey for specific variables and the second table for definitions. To be clear, some of the definitions do not perfectly overlap with ones commonly used in the social sciences. For example, the classification “USA Blacks” refers to children who were identified as being Black, not being White, not being Hispanic, but also not having an immigrant parent or grandparent. This was done because, when computing the scores, we were interested in mutually exclusive ethnocultural groups.

Bear in mind that the sample sizes are often small and so the corresponding estimates are imprecise and also that the NIH Toolbox battery is fluid-intelligence loaded. For comparison, Sailer, in 2009, reported cognitive abilities of legal American immigrants based on the digit span backwards test. Additionally, in 2015, I summarized scores by immigrant generation and ethnic groups mostly based on scholastic tests.

Ethnic/National GroupNMSDIQ-Metric Score Parental Education (Years)
Korean & Japanese33115.1319.15110.0516.36
White & Asian Indian44114.6614.19109.6216.75
White & Korean/Japanese78111.4118.02106.6515.89
White & Chinese77109.7718.16105.1616.42
White & Filipino60109.6718.09105.0716.16
Other Asian52106.820.17102.4615.91
Asian Indian53106.7717.03102.4216.8
White & Pacific Islander25103.7416.999.6615.47
N. Africa & Mid. East47100.3320.0196.5614.92
Pacific Islander1799.7912.1896.0614.07
White & Native American14499.3215.3695.6314.51
Central & South American35298.3616.9894.7614.15
Not Identified21796.6917.7893.2413.4
White Mexican77595.116.3791.7812.8
White Cuban15194.981691.6713.92
NH Black & White41894.9316.9191.6314.14
Other Hispanic51894.5617.7591.2913.95
White Puerto Rican13394.2217.2390.9813.74
Black African5993.8413.4190.6314.97
Other Cuban3092.8118.389.6914.33
Native American3992.2916.189.2213.14
Other Mexican46091.8216.0288.7911.9
Black Caribbean5191.7416.7988.7214.26
Black & Other Puerto Rican9090.6115.4987.6913.22
USA Black149985.4414.882.9813.32

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